Thymalin 20mg

Thymalin 20mg

Thymalin 20mg

Thymalin is a polypeptide medication used for treatment of various diseases associated with immune dysfunction, viral and bacterial infections or regeneration issues, immunodepression, and post-chemical and radiotherapy hematogenesis depression. It has immunomodulatory and antiviral effects studied in numerous researches. Thymalin and its components function by regulating gene expression and synthesizing heat-shock proteins, cytokines, fibrinolysis, gerontogenes, as well as influencing cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Thymalin exhibits minimal side effects and could be effective against various viral infections, making it potential candidate for the complex therapy for example of COVID-19.

€41.67
Quantity

ESTIMATED DELIVERY

Solution not bundled

PEPTIDE Appearance
Quantity:
20mg
Unit:
1 vial
Physical Appearance:
White powder
Salt form:
Acetate
Peptide Purity:
≥97%
Sequence:
Pyr-Ala-Lys-Ser-Gln-Gly-Gly-Ser-Asn
Molecular Mass:
858.864
CAS NO.:
63958-90-7
Solubility:
Bacteriostatic water 1ml/vial

Description of Thymalin

Thymalin is a synthetic version of Thymulin, and was originally derived from calf thymus. Thymalin exhibits immune and geroprotective effects by normalizing differentiation, proliferation, and reducing apoptosis of lymphoid cells, thereby activating cellular immunity and regeneration processes. Its short peptides, EW, KE, and EDP, bind complementarily to specific DNA sequences or histone proteins, leading to changes in gene expression and the synthesis of HSPs, cytokines, the fibrinolysis system, gerontogens, and proteins involved in immune cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. This normalization of protein synthesis enhances immune and antioxidant functions, regeneration, and hemostasis, contributing to the drug's effectiveness in treating various diseases. Given its use in viral infections and bronchoprotection, thymalin is also considered potentially effective for coronavirus therapy, highlighting the importance of its further research.

Now let’s have a closer look to the effects of the peptide, which have been researched and confirmed in various studies.

[1]

Research Confirmed Effects

1. Thymalin and Life Extension

Research by the St. Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology and the Ukrainian Academy of Medical Sciences assessed the geroprotective effects of thymic peptide Thymalin and pineal peptide Epithalamin on 266 elderly individuals during 6-8 years. Administered for the first 2-3 years, these bioregulators significantly improved cardiovascular, endocrine, immune, and nervous system functions, as well as homeostasis and metabolism. Patients experienced a 2.0-2.4-fold reduction in acute respiratory diseases and decreased incidence of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and osteoporosis. Mortality rates dropped by 2.0-2.1 times for Thymalin, 1.6-1.8 times for Epithalamin, and 2.5 times when both were combined. A group receiving annual treatments of both peptides for six years saw a 4.1-fold reduction in mortality compared to controls, highlighting their potential in prolonging active longevity.

The peptides EW, KE, and EDP, components of Thymalin, bind to DNA or histone proteins, altering gene expression related to immune function, cytokine production, and cell apoptosis. This normalization supports the body's regulatory systems, enhancing immune responses, antioxidant functions, regeneration, and hemostasis, making Thymalin effective for a wide range of diseases and potentially beneficial in COVID-19 therapy. Thymalin and Epithalamin's synergistic effects further emphasize their geroprotective potential, especially as pineal peptides protect the thymus from age-related degeneration through immunoendocrine cooperation and transcription activation.

The studies underscore the high efficacy of Thymalin and Epithalamin in improving health and reducing mortality in older adults. These findings advocate for their use in medical and social care to maintain health and prevent age-related diseases, promoting active and prolonged longevity for individuals over 60.

[2] - [4]

2. Thymalin and Immune System

Research has identified a nonapeptide in animal serum, dependent on thymus presence, with potential hormonal properties, though no universally accepted thymic compounds have emerged. Studies on patients with hyperplastic thyroid diseases before and after surgery showed cell immunity imbalances, particularly in lymphocyte subpopulations and immunoregulatory indices, which worsened post-operation. Thymalin, thyroxine, and fibronectin were found to influence cellular immunity, particularly in patients with toxic goiter and autoimmune thyroiditis, suggesting the hormone-dependent regulation of lymphocyte function. Thymalin alters cellular immunity by affecting T-cell differentiation and NK cell activity, highlighting its potential for correcting immune imbalances and reducing susceptibility to infections and cancer in chronic conditions like diabetes.

Patients with diabetic retinopathy exhibit T-cell immune insufficiency, affecting T-lymphocyte proliferation and requiring individualized immune correction therapy using drugs like thymalin, splenin, erbisol, and thymogen. This immune correction is vital for managing inflammation and slowing disease progression. Thymalin, in particular, shows promise in boosting T-cell responses, which may also benefit chronic immunodeficiencies like HIV. Combining highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with thymalin could potentially reverse immune system damage and increase CD4+ T-cell numbers in HIV patients, offering a pathway to improved immune function and disease management.

Advances in immunobiology are enhancing our understanding of HIV pathogenesis and the mechanisms leading to CD4+ T-cell decline. Studies on long-term non-progressors and trials with HAART and immune modulators are paving the way for new treatments. Thymalin is being investigated as a potent adjuvant for HIV vaccines, capable of boosting T-cell responses and enhancing vaccine efficacy. This function may allow for safer, more effective vaccines that require fewer doses and less virulent pathogens. The development of new adjuvants with immunopotentiating properties is crucial for designing protective vaccines, with regulatory agencies actively working on guidelines for evaluating these new adjuvants.

Research on rats post-thyroidectomy shows a decline in thymic function, weight loss, and reduced cell proliferation. However, administering thymalin and thyroxin hormone therapy post-surgery mitigates these effects, preventing significant health deterioration and improving immune function, reducing infection risk, and promoting overall better health.

[5] - [10]

3. Thymalin in Cancer

Pulsed neodymium laser radiation has been successfully used to treat various skin tumors, including precancerous lesions, benign tumors, cutaneous carcinomas, melanoma, and metastatic melanomas, with follow-up periods ranging from three months to 8 years. This therapy is effective for skin tumors inaccessible to traditional radiation therapy and offers better cosmetic outcomes compared to surgery. Local recurrences were rare, and metastases to regional lymph nodes were observed in a small number of melanoma patients. Combining pulsed laser radiation with thymalin or epithalamin in experimental studies on mice with melanoma and carcinoma has shown enhanced preventive effects on tumor dissemination. These peptides boost antibody-producing cells in the spleen, potentially improving the overall efficacy of the laser treatment and increasing remission or cure rates.

Thymalin has demonstrated significant antitumor effects in experiments on rats with transplanted sarcoma, arresting tumor growth in nearly 80% of cases and causing regression in over half of the subjects. This effect is associated with increased lymphoproliferative activity and the presence of tissue basophils and plasmocytes in the thymus, suggesting a strong adaptive response. Additionally, combining Thymalin with plasmapheresis has proven beneficial in treating chronic lymphoid leukemia, achieving clinical and hematological compensation more rapidly than chemotherapy alone. This combination improves the functional activity of the lymphoid system and hastens the restoration of blood system homeostasis, leading to quicker and more effective remission.

[11] - [16]

4. Thymalin in Psoriasis

Combining thymalin with standard treatments for psoriasis results in the normalization of immunity and hemostasis parameters, which correlates with clinical improvements in patients. This demonstrates that thymalin has a measurable and observable positive effect on both laboratory measures and the clinical status of individuals with disseminated forms of psoriasis.

[17]

5. Thymalin in Tuberculosis

Patients with progressive pulmonary tuberculosis treated with thymalin alongside standard antibiotic therapy showed significantly higher rates of clinical cure compared to those receiving antibiotics alone. Tailoring thymalin therapy to individual patient needs led to nearly 95% cure rates. Thymalin administration early in the course of infection is particularly effective, especially considering the increasing antibiotic resistance in tuberculosis. Additionally, patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus exhibit greater depression of cellular immunity, which can be improved with thymalin therapy, leading to better treatment outcomes and more rapid resolution of the infection.

[18] - [20]

6. Thymalin in Kidney Diseases

Patients with exacerbated chronic glomerulonephritis, a type of inflammatory kidney disease, treated with thymalin demonstrated improvements in kidney function and blood indices of inflammation. Thymalin administration led to enhancements in immunologic measurements of the disease, suggesting a potential reduction in kidney damage and possibly delaying the need for dialysis or transplant. Chronic glomerulonephritis is characterized by inflammation in the filtering units of the kidneys, leading to progressive kidney damage and eventual renal failure if left untreated. Thymalin, a peptide with immunomodulatory properties, has shown promise in improving immune function and reducing inflammation in various conditions, including autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases. In the context of kidney disease, thymalin may help regulate the immune response and mitigate the inflammatory processes involved in chronic glomerulonephritis, thereby preserving kidney function and slowing disease progression. Further research is warranted to explore the therapeutic potential of thymalin in managing kidney diseases and its long-term effects on renal health.

[21]

7. Thymalin and Circadian Rhythm

Age-related changes in circadian and circannual fluctuations of the immune response and lymphoid organ cellularity were studied in rodents. Results showed that in adult rats, peaks of thymus and spleen cellularity occurred at night and during the daytime, respectively, while in young mice, peaks varied with the season. With aging, peaks in cellularity shifted, and rhythms became less pronounced, suggesting alterations in immune system function. Chronic administration of the thymus preparation thymalin increased antibody levels and promoted a more robust immune response in aging animals. Research indicates that changes in thymic factors may affect circadian rhythms, impacting cellular and humoral immunity. These findings shed light on the seasonal susceptibility to infections and increased infection risk in the elderly, potentially offering thymalin as a means of immune support to counteract age-related immune deficiencies and circadian rhythm changes. Thymalin's ability to enhance immune function may hold promise for infection prevention, complementing or surpassing the efficacy of vaccines in certain contexts.

[22]

8. Thymalin in Heart Diseases and Atherosclerosis

Thymalin, derived from the thymus, demonstrated hypolipidemic and antiatherosclerotic effects in rabbits fed a cholesterol-rich diet over three months. It not only lowered lipid levels but also improved the functional activity of lymphocytes, particularly by normalizing T-suppressor activity and sensitivity to atherogenic lipoproteins. These findings suggest that thymalin may play a preventive and therapeutic role in heart disease by addressing immune dysfunction and reducing plaque formation in arteries, offering a potential avenue for managing and reversing atherosclerosis.

[23]

9. Thymalin in Postoperative States

Thymalin has shown promise in preventing infection and inflammatory complications after surgery, according to research from Russia. In addition to blood clots, infection is a significant postoperative complication, particularly in orthopedic surgeries, and can be a leading cause of mortality in postoperative patients. By reducing the risk of postoperative infection, thymalin may enable safer surgeries for high-risk patients and decrease the incidence of adverse events associated with major surgical procedures.

[24]

10. Thymalin and Gum Disease

Thymalin shows potential in treating periodontitis, an inflammatory condition affecting the gums and supporting structures of the teeth, often leading to tooth loss. While prevention through regular dental care and oral hygiene is preferable, treating established periodontitis can be challenging. Thymalin appears to alleviate inflammation and enhance the cellular immune response required to combat the bacteria responsible for periodontitis. This suggests that thymalin could offer a promising therapeutic approach for managing this common oral health condition.

[25]

11. Thymalin and Anorexia

Thymulin activity, a key marker of thymic function, is significantly reduced in anorexia nervosa patients compared to healthy individuals. This reduction may result from thymic atrophy secondary to malnutrition or hormonal imbalances commonly observed in these patients. Despite normal levels of other hormones like cortisol and zinc, anorexia nervosa patients exhibit severely depressed plasma levels of triiodothyronine (T3). This hormonal disruption likely contributes to changes in peripheral lymphocyte levels and immune function decline in anorexia nervosa. Thymalin administration shows promise in counteracting these immune changes and may even help reverse thymic atrophy in these patients. However, supplementation with zinc alongside thymalin is crucial for optimal efficacy, as thymulin activity depends on zinc availability. Ongoing clinical research aims to further elucidate the therapeutic potential of thymalin in managing anorexia nervosa-related immune dysfunction.

[26]

References

  1. V. K. Khavinson et al., “The Use of Thymalin for Immunocorrection and Molecular Aspects for Biological Activity”, 2021.
  2. V. K. Khavinson and V. G. Morozov, “Peptides of pineal gland and thymus prolong human life,” Neuro Endocrinol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 3–4, pp. 233–240, Aug. 2003.
  3. V. K. Khavinson and V. G. Morozov, “[Geroprotective effect of thymalin and epithalamin],” Adv. Gerontol. Uspekhi Gerontol., vol. 10, pp. 74–84, 2002.
  4. N. S. Lin’kova, V. O. Poliakova, I. M. Kvetnoĭ, A. V. Trofimov, and N. N. Sevost’ianova, “[Characteristics of the pineal gland and thymus relationship in aging],” Adv. Gerontol. Uspekhi Gerontol., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 38–42, 2011.
  5. J. Bach, M. Bardenne, J. Pleau, and J. Rosa, “Biochemical characterisation of a serum thymic factor,” Nature, vol. 266, no. 5597, pp. 55–57, Mar. 1977.
  6. A. M. Reznichenko, V. P. Fesenko, D. V. Shestopalov, and P. A. Tatarchuk, “[Changes in cell immunity indexes under the influence of thymalin, thyroxine and fibronectin in patients with hyperplastic diseases of thyroid gland before and after the surgery],” Klin. Khir., no. 12, pp. 31–33, Dec. 2001.
  7. H. D. Zhaboiedov, N. H. Bychkova, R. L. Skrypnik, and M. V. Sydorova, “[Evaluation of cellular and humoral immunity and individual sensitivity of T-lymphocytes to immunocorrectors in patients with diabetic retinopathy],” Lik. Sprava, no. 1, pp. 53–56, Feb. 2001.
  8. T. P. Young, “Immune mechanisms in HIV infection,” J. Assoc. Nurses AIDS Care JANAC, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 71–75, Dec. 2003.
  9. E. Montomoli, S. Piccirella, B. Khadang, E. Mennitto, R. Camerini, and A. De Rosa, “Current adjuvants and new perspectives in vaccine formulation,” Expert Rev. Vaccines, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 1053–1061, Jul. 2011.
  10. I. I. Hrinevych, H. D. Bendiuh, N. M. Khranovs’ka, I. M. Bilokin’, and O. M. Ostapenko, “[Effect of thyroxin and thymalin on proliferation and apoptosis of thymocytes in rats after thyroidectomy],” Fiziolohichnyi Zhurnal Kiev Ukr. 1994, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 39–43, 2004.
  11. A. P. Kozlov and K. G. Moskalik, “Pulsed laser radiation therapy of skin tumors,” Cancer, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 2172–2178, Nov. 1980.
  12. R. I. Wagner, A. P. Kozlov, and K. G. Moskalik, “Laser radiation therapy of skin melanoma,” Strahlentherapie, vol. 157, no. 10, pp. 670–672, Oct. 1981.
  13. K. G. Moskalik, “[Effect of thymalin and epithalamin on the metastasis of experimental tumors irradiated with pulsed laser radiation],” Vopr. Onkol., vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 57–62, 1987.
  14. G. V. Zhukova, A. I. Schikhlyarova, T. A. Barteneva, A. N. Shevchenko, and F. M. Zakharyuta, “Effect of Thymalin on the Tumor and Thymus under Conditions of Activation Therapy In Vivo,” Bull. Exp. Biol. Med., vol. 165, no. 1, pp. 80–83, May 2018.
  15. N. N. Tretiak, T. F. Babenko, S. N. Gaĭdukova, A. S. Zverkova, and S. P. Beschastnaia, “[The efficacy of using thymalin and plasmapheresis in the combined treatment of patients with chronic lympholeukemia],” Lik. Sprava, no. 2, pp. 93–96, Apr. 1998.
  16. T. F. Babenko, V. T. Antonenko, and M. F. SkuratovskiUi, “[Thymalin in the combined treatment of patients with chronic lympholeukemia],” Vrach. Delo, no. 3, pp. 47–49, Mar. 1989.
  17. M. P. Isaeva, G. B. Budazhabon, and B. I. Kuznik, “[The effect of thymalin on indices of immunity and hemostasis in patients with disseminated forms of psoriasis],” Vestn. Dermatol. Venerol., no. 10, pp. 42–43, 1989.
  18. A. A. Maslennikov, V. F. Kamenev, and V. M. Kolomiets, “[Immunological correction in progressive pulmonary tuberculosis],” Probl. Tuberk. Bolezn. Legk., no. 9, pp. 30–33, 2007.
  19. L. A. Ivanova, “[The use of thymalin in the combined chemotherapy of patients with infiltrative destructive pulmonary tuberculosis],” Vrach. Delo, no. 10, pp. 57–59, Oct. 1989.
  20. M. A. Karachunskiĭ, V. I. Gergert, and O. B. Iakovleva, “[Specific features of cellular immunity of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with diabetes mellitus],” Probl. Tuberk., no. 6, pp. 59–60, 1997.
  21. G. V. Budazhabon, B. I. Kuznik, V. G. Morozov, N. N. Orlova, and V. K. Khavinson, “[Immunogenesis and hemostasis in patients with exacerbated chronic glomerulonephritis treated with thymalin],” Ter. Arkh., vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 62–66, 1984.
  22. I. F. Labunets’, “[Age-related changes in circadian and circannual fluctuations of the immune response and the number of cells in lymphoid organs of animals: a possible connection to thymic factors],” Fiziolohichnyi Zhurnal Kiev Ukr. 1994, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 54–62, 2001.
  23. V. E. Ryzhenkov, R. P. Ogurtsov, V. V. Trubacheva, V. G. Popov, and V. P. Puzyreva, “[Effect of thymalin on the development of experimental hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis],” Vopr. Med. Khim., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 51–56, Feb. 1988.
  24. 2Z. S. Zhumadilov and R. P. Terekhova, “[Use of thymalin for preventing postoperative suppurative and inflammatory complications],” Klin. Khirurgiia, no. 1, pp. 36–38, Jan. 1985.
  25. B. I. Kuznik, V. K. Khavinson, V. G. Morozova, G. B. Budazhabon, and N. G. Budazhabon, “[Use of thymalin in treating periodontitis patients],” Stomatologiia (Sofiia), vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 20–22, Feb. 1985.
  26. S. Wade et al., “Thymulin (Zn-facteur thymique serique) activity in anorexia nervosa patients,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 275–280, Aug. 1985.

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Thymalin 20mg
Thymalin 20mg
€41.67
Quantity