DSIP (Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide) is a neuropeptide that has been found in research to improve for example natural deep delta EEG sleep.
What other knowledge has scientific research on DSIP shown?Can regulate sleep.
Although the exact mode of action of the DSIP neuropeptide is not yet completely and unambiguously clarified, it is already apparent that this peptide has many modulatory effects in the central nervous system. In addition to affecting, regulating and inducing sleep, it also has other remarkable effects, for example, on the circadian rhythm. It does this precisely by interacting with serotonin and melatonin. By interacting with temperature regulation, it affects the endocrine system and alleviating of hypothermia. Significant effects were also discovered in connection with protection against oxidative stress and free radicals. Its ability to increase the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation contributes to a significant antioxidant effect.
Laboratory studies have also shown that it can reduce the body's response to acute stress, as it significantly affects the levels of substance P, beta-endorphin and cortisol in the hypothalamus and blood plasma. Thus, the effect of DSIP on coping with acute and long-term stress largely depends on the changes in the levels of other oligopeptides and hormones that DSIP induces. In connection with emotional stress, DSIP triggers a series of interrelated reactions at the molecular level.
Another possibly beneficial and important effect of DSIP is its importance in withdrawal from opioids, when, together with exogenously administered morphine, it was able to modulate opioid peptidergic systems, and in chronic pain, where the results of the study stated a significant reduction in pain attacks in patients with chronic pain and depressive states.
Let us now discuss these most important effects of DSIP in more detail.
Delta sleep-inducing peptide was first isolated in 1974 by a Swiss team of scientists. Although the gene of this neuropeptide and the exact mechanism of its action remain unknown, it has been found in free and bound form in the hypothalamus, limbic system and pituitary gland. DSIP stimulates the release of LH, suggesting that it might also activate the responsible hypothalamic neural circuit. Its primary effect is to help sleep in chronic insomnia, which has been the subject of several studies.
One of them was carried out on a group of 14 patients suffering from insomnia. The effect of DSIP on sleep and daytime performance was investigated. DSIP administration was placebo-controlled for 7 consecutive nights. Results were monitored by polysomnograms for the placebo line, DSIP administration at the beginning and end of treatment, and one placebo night after treatment. Performance during the day was also tested and monitored, namely psychological state and mental performance before and after the application of DSIP injections, 25 nmol/kg. The improvement in night sleep was really noticeable already with the first dose and also with repeated doses. The effects persisted even during the last placebo night after treatment, or administration of DSIP. Daily performance and alertness has seen a significant increase.
Another application of DSIP could be the treatment of narcolepsy. Indeed, DSIP could reduce sleep attacks in narcoleptics during the day. Repeated injections of DSIP in a 35-year-old male narcoleptic investigated the effects of the neuropeptide on these very symptoms and concluded that DSIP reduced the frequency of daytime sleep attacks and increased the individual's daytime performance in terms of overall alertness and activity. Various tests of performance, multiple sleep latency, self-report, and nocturnal polysomnography have shown that DSIP exhibits this effect, also through its ability to improve REM sleep and regulate circadian and ultradian rhythms.
Due to its agonistic activity at opioid receptors, DSIP has been indicated for possible treatment of opioid withdrawal and improvement of withdrawal symptoms. This effect has also been studied in animals and in patients undergoing alcohol and opiate withdrawal treatment. An animal study revealed that when DSIP was directly injected into the bulbo-mesencephalo-thalamic recruitment system, it induced slow-wave sleep and Naloxone-reversed sleep spindle activity.
The effect of DSIP in reducing withdrawal symptoms was also investigated in hospitalized patients. There were 107 of them. They showed withdrawal symptoms from alcohol (n = 47) and opiates (n = 60). The effects were evaluated by doctors and nursing staff. 97% of the given patients showed significant resolution of clinical symptoms and signs associated with opiate withdrawal after 2 weeks. Except for the signs of anxiety, where it was a bit longer. A few patients responded to this experimental DSIP treatment with headaches, but otherwise tolerance was very good.
The use of DSIP in patients with chronic pain and depression, or both, was another important clinical indication for this neuropeptide. It has been shown that DSIP reduces the level of pain and works to improve depressive conditions. Another study was conducted in connection with this. The basis was the findings that DSIP modulates endogenous opioid peptidergic systems and has a significant effect on circadian rhythms and cortisol levels. In particular, it was investigated whether, in this context, DSIP can alleviate episodes of chronic pain and depressive states.
7 patients with chronic pain such as migraines, vasomotor headaches, chronic tinnitus and also psychogenic panic attacks and depressive states participated in the study of the therapeutic effects of DSIP. DSIP was administered intravenously to patients for 5 consecutive days, followed by 5 additional injections every 48–72 hours. It was found that DSIP significantly reduced pain levels in 6 out of 7 patients and was also able to significantly reduce depressive states.
In addition to the already mentioned indications, DSIP proves to be a promising tool for stress manifestations, as it is excellent at reducing the manifestations of acute and long-term stress. It also normalizes blood pressure and myocardial contractions. It demonstrated increased efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation in rat mitochondria in vitro and possible antioxidant effects are also attributed to it.
This neuropeptide with exceptional properties and effects will certainly be subject of further research, so that thanks to it we can soon use the benefits for improving health and treating many diagnoses.
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